Metamorphoses of the Werewolf: A Literary Study from Antiquity through the Renaissance

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Metamorphoses of the Werewolf - Leslie A Sconduto - Häftad () | Bokus

Mark K. Kevin Carey. Edu Reginato. Arminder Dhatt. Karl Anthony Marzo Bugar. Iqbal Reloaded. Matilda Eftimova. Jim Burrows. Roann Baleza. Julian Cardenas. Chamado de Cthulhu Portais Para as Trevas 5d5eb05d48b4e. More From Ollie Nicholls. Sometimes, less extreme methods were used. In the German lowland of Schleswig-Holstein, a werewolf could be cured if one were to simply address it three times by its Christian name, while one Danish belief holds that merely scolding a werewolf will cure it.

Hubert has also been cited as both cure for and protection from lycanthropes. Before the end of the 19th century, the Greeks believed that the corpses of werewolves, if not destroyed, would return to life in the form of wolves or hyenas which prowled battlefields, drinking the blood of dying soldiers.

In the same vein, in some rural areas of Germany, Poland and Northern France, it was once believed that people who died in mortal sin came back to life as blood-drinking wolves. These "undead" werewolves would return to their human corpse form at daylight. They were dealt with by decapitation with a spade and exorcism by the parish priest.

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The head would then be thrown into a stream, where the weight of its sins was thought to weigh it down. Sometimes, the same methods used to dispose of ordinary vampires would be used. The vampire was also linked to the werewolf in East European countries, particularly Bulgaria, Serbia and Slovenia. In Serbia, the werewolf and vampire are known collectively as vulkodlak. In Hungarian folklore, the werewolves used to live specially in the region of Transdanubia , and it was thought that the ability to change into a wolf was obtained in the infant age, after the suffering of abuse by the parents or by a curse.

At the age of seven the boy or the girl leaves the house and goes hunting by night and can change to person or wolf whenever he wants.

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The curse can also be obtained when in the adulthood the person passed three times through an arch made of a Birch with the help of a wild rose 's spine. The werewolves were known to exterminate all kind of farm animals, especially sheep. The transformation usually occurred during the winter solstice , Easter and a full moon. Later in the 17th and 18th century, the trials in Hungary not only were conducted against witches, but against werewolves too, and many records exist creating connections between both kinds.

Also the vampires and werewolves are closely related in Hungary, being both feared in the antiquity. Among the South Slavs , and also among the Kashubs of what is now northern Poland, [ clarification needed ] there was the belief that if a child was born with hair, a birthmark or a caul on their head, they were supposed to possess shape-shifting abilities.

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Though capable of turning into any animal they wished, it was commonly believed that such people preferred to turn into a wolf. Serbian vukodlak s traditionally had the habit of congregating annually in the winter months, when they would strip off their wolf skins and hang them from trees.

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They would then get a hold of another vulkodlak ' s skin and burn it, releasing from its curse the vukodlak from whom the skin came. According to Armenian lore, there are women who, in consequence of deadly sins, are condemned to spend seven years in wolf form. With her better nature overcome, the she-wolf devours each of her own children, then her relatives' children in order of relationship, and finally the children of strangers. She wanders only at night, with doors and locks springing open at her approach.

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When morning arrives, she reverts to human form and removes her wolfskin. The transformation is generally said to be involuntary, but there are alternate versions involving voluntary metamorphosis, where the women can transform at will. The Naskapis believed that the caribou afterlife is guarded by giant wolves which kill careless hunters venturing too near. The Navajo people feared witches in wolf's clothing called "Mai-cob". Woodward thought that these beliefs were due to the Norse colonization of the Americas.

Belief in the loup-garou present in Canada , the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan [36] and upstate New York , originates from French folklore influenced by Native American stories on the Wendigo. In Mexico , there is a belief in a creature called the nahual , which traditionally limits itself to stealing cheese and raping women rather than murder. Most modern fiction describes werewolves as vulnerable to silver weapons and highly resistant to other injuries. This feature appears in German folklore of the 19th century.

The novel Dracula and the short story " Dracula's Guest ", both written by Bram Stoker , drew on earlier mythologies of werewolves and similar legendary demons and "was to voice the anxieties of an age", and the "fears of late Victorian patriarchy ". Count Dracula stated in the novel that legends of werewolves originated from his Szekely racial bloodline, [45] who himself is also depicted with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf at will during the night but is unable to do so during the day except at noon.

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The first feature film to use an anthropomorphic werewolf was Werewolf of London in The main werewolf of this film is a dapper London scientist who retains some of his style and most of his human features after his transformation, [47] as lead actor Henry Hull was unwilling to spend long hours being made up by makeup artist Jack Pierce. There is no reference to silver nor other aspects of werewolf lore such as cannibalism.

With Pierce's makeup more elaborate this time, [50] the movie catapulted the werewolf into public consciousness.

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  8. Other werewolves are decidedly more willful and malevolent, such as those in the novel The Howling and its subsequent sequels and film adaptations. The form a werewolf assumes was generally anthropomorphic in early films such as The Wolf Man and Werewolf of London , but larger and powerful wolf in many later films. Werewolves are often depicted as immune to damage caused by ordinary weapons, being vulnerable only to silver objects, such as a silver-tipped cane, bullet or blade; this attribute was first adopted cinematically in The Wolf Man.

    Current-day werewolf fiction almost exclusively involves lycanthropy being either a hereditary condition or being transmitted like an infectious disease by the bite of another werewolf. In some fiction, the power of the werewolf extends to human form, such as invulnerability to conventional injury due to their healing factor, super-human speed and strength and falling on their feet from high falls.

    Metamorphoses of the Werewolf

    Also aggressiveness and animalistic urges may be intensified and harder to control hunger, sexual arousal. Usually in these cases the abilities are diminished in human form. In other fiction it can be cured by medicine men or antidotes. Along with the vulnerability to the silver bullet, the full moon being the cause of the transformation only became part of the depiction of werewolves on a widespread basis in the twentieth century.